Sweet Jesus, it's a color palette!
One of the projects in my operating systems course was to implement a EXT2 file system. The file system can be viewed as a structured binary file similar to images, movies, or audio files. Video games also often store their data files in a structured binary format.
In his post, Zach Barth explains his his exploration of the data format for a 90's Star Wars game. The ultimate goal is to extract the sprites for each in game object and replace them with modded images.
This post brings back fond memories of building a game boy emulator and presents some basic techniques to discover patterns in data files.